There is no “cookie-cutter” format for predicting criminal behavior. Rehabilitation programs are used locally for probation resources as well as using them in the prison. Deterrence is the goal for preventing any future criminal behavior. The sanction of incarceration alone does not appear to affect any future criminal behavior. Andrews & Bonta (2010) have noted that incarceration using treatment along with incarceration have less recidivism rates. While an offender is on community supervision, there are often local resources utilized that are specific to everyone. Out-patient drug rehabilitation, group therapy, anger management, parenting classes, or any other type of local resources.
There are standard terms of probation for each offender and then there are terms tailored for each offender. Many of these terms are in place for specific deterrence. For example, offenders are not allowed to allowed to have associates on probation or prior incarceration. We know that many times offenders will re-offend while associating with other offenders. They share the same attitudes toward law enforcement, those attitudes are negative.
America has attempted the “get tough” and “nothing works” mantra since the rehabilitation era. As mentioned before, specific sanctions are placed on each offender. One specialized offender is the sex offender. Obviously, the goal is for the sex offender to not commit additional crime. Therefore, specialized treatment intervention has caused a less recidivism rate among sex offenders (Mancini & Budd, 2016).
Treatment for juveniles is also worth noting. Specifically, attempting to provide the appropriate treatment for the violent juvenile offender. The general juvenile offender is placed on juvenile probation. Local resources are required for each probationer. Treatment for the offender could be in the form of placement to receive specialized therapy. Juvenile offenders often have the same crimes as adults, but because of their maturity they must be treated differently. There is no jail-time initially. A formal risk and needs assessment is completed, and a supervision level and treatment setting are evaluated to decrease the risks of reoffending (Ryan, Hunter, & Murrie, 2012). There is difficulty for the parole officer, probation officer, and caseworker working for each individual offender and developing case plans and treatments explicitly for each offender.
Andrews, D., & Bonta, J. (2010). The psychology of criminal conduct (5th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Mancini, C., & Budd, K. M. (2016). Is the public convinced that ‘nothing works?’: Predictors of treatment support for sex offenders among Americans. Crime & Delinquency, 62(6), 777-799. doi: 10.0044/0011128715597693
Ryan, E. P., Hunter, J. A., & Murrie, D. C. (2012). Juvenile sex offenders: A guide to evaluation and treatment for mental health professionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.